European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructure (ESFRI)

ESFRI, the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures, is a strategic instrument created in 2002 by the Member States and the European Commission to develop the scientific integration of Europe and to strengthen its international outreach. ESFRI gives national authorities the opportunity to explore common and integrated activities for the best development and use of Research Infrastructures of pan-European relevance.

ESFRI developed a roadmap that describes the scientific needs for Research Infrastructures for the next 10-20 years, on the basis of a methodology recognised by all stakeholders, and taking into account input from relevant inter-governmental research organisations as well as the industrial community.

The ESFRI roadmap addresses all scientific disciplines that require a large scale Research Infrastructure with a joint effort on European or international scale.

Energy

ECCSEL - European Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Laboratory Infrastructure

The ECCSEL facility combines three approaches to capture (pre and post combustion and O2/CO2 –oxy-fuelrecycle combustion capture) and three approaches to carbon storage (aquifers, depleted oil/gas fields, coal bed methane). The project includes the upgrading of existing national infrastructures to European level. The upgraded facility is composed of distributed parts in different countries and a coordination centre in Norway.

EU-SOLARIS - European Solar Research Infrastructure for Concentrating Solar Power

EU-SOLARIS is a networking approach from outstanding solar research centres in five European countries to support the scientific and technological development of Concentrating Solar Power Systems. The core activities will be carried out in the Centro Tecnológico Avanzado de Energías Renovables (CTAER)/ Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) installations in Almería (Spain), which are currently the world leading facilities in this field. The project includes the upgrading of existing infrastructures along with new installations.

MYRRHA - European Fast Spectrum Irradiation Facility

MYRRHA (Multipurpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-Tech Applications) will be an innovative pan-European large Research Infrastructure. It is a hybrid system that consists of the combination of a high energy proton linear accelerator and a lead-alloy cooled fast spectrum irradiation facility. MYRRHA can be operated in both sub-critical (accelerator driven system mode) and critical mode.

WINDSCANNER - The European WindScanner Facility

WindScanner is a unique, distributed Research Infrastructure providing fundamentally new knowledge about the wind, which will lead to more efficient, stronger and lighter wind turbines. Exploiting recent advances in laser wind measurement techniques, mobile 3-D remote sensing wind scanners will be deployed by seven large energy research institutes across Europe. This will provide an important catalysis for the future cooperation and integration of the European wind energy Research Infrastructures.

JHR - Jules Horowitz Reactor

High flux reactor for fission reactors material testing.

This new research reactor will allow high flux neutron irradiation experiments dedicated to the study of the materials and fuel behaviour under irradiation with sizes and environment conditions relevant for nuclear power plants in order to optimise efficiency and demonstrate safe operations of existing power reactors as well as to support future reactor design.

Environment

EISCAT_3D - The next generation European incoherent scatter radar system

EISCAT_3D will be a three-dimensional imaging radar for atmospheric and geo-space research, which constitutes an upgrade to EISCAT, an existing international infrastructure based in Europe and devoted to the study of the upper atmosphere, ionosphere and geospace. This new large-scale European Research Infrastructure will have applications in a wide range of European research areas including Earth environment monitoring and technology solutions supporting sustainable development, well beyond atmospheric and space sciences.

EPOS - European Plate Observing System

EPOS will create a single sustainable, permanent observational infrastructure, integrating existing geophysical monitoring networks (e.g. seismic and geodetic networks), local observatories (e.g. volcano observatories) and experimental laboratories (e.g.,experimental and analytic lab for rock physics and tectonic analogue modeling) in Europe and adjacent regions. It will coordinate the currently scattered, but highly advanced, European facilities into one distributed, coherent multidisciplinary Research Infrastructure.

SIOS - The Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System

The goal of SIOS is to establish an observational Research Infrastructure for the Arctic Earth System, integrating studies of geophysical, chemical and biological processes from the research and monitoring platforms. It corresponds to a need concerning climate change monitoring. The Research Infrastructure is mainly European with a strong international component, with the presence of a large number of research institutes from all over the world (EU Member States and associated states, and other countries such as Russia, China, Japan, Korea, USA and India). It is of use for a very broad and interdisciplinary user community and offers opportunities for education and training of young scientists - also in a broad international context. It has a high level of maturity regarding all aspects (technical concept, timetable, availability of trained personal, budget).

ACTRIS - Aerosols, Clouds and Trace gases Research Instrastructure

ACTRIS is a distributed infrastructure dedicated to high-quality observation of aerosols, clouds, trace gases and exploration of their interactions. It will deliver precision data, services and procedures regarding the 4D variability of clouds, short-lived atmospheric species and the physical, optical and chemical properties of aerosols to improve the current capacity to analyse, understand and predict past, current and future evolution of the atmospheric environment.

DANUBIUS-RI - International Centre for Advanced Studies on River-Sea Systems

DANUBIUS-RI is a distributed research infrastructure building on existing expertise to support interdisciplinary research on large river-sea (RS) systems. It spans the environmental, social and economic sciences and brings together research on different environmental sectors. It provides access to a range of RS systems, facilities and expertise, a “one-stop shop” for knowledge exchange, access to harmonised data and a platform for interdisciplinary research, education and training.

EMSO - European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory

EMSO is the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory, a Research Infrastructure for long term permanent monitoring of the ocean margin environment around Europe. It is considered critical by the European Science Foundation marine board. EMSO is an essential tool for deep sea research including geosciences and geo-hazards, physical oceanography, biology and non-living resources.

EURO-ARGO - Global Ocean Observing Infrastructure

Argo is a global ocean observing system with the primary goal to maintain the 3000 floats array over the next 10 to 20 years. This is extremely challenging and success in such a major undertaking can be achieved only through a very high degree of international cooperation and integration. Euro-Argo will develop and progressively consolidate the European component of the global network. Specific European interests also require increased sampling in some regional seas. Overall, the Euro-Argo infrastructure should comprise 800 floats in operation at any given time. The maintenance of such an array would require Europe to deploy about 250 floats per year. Euro-Argo must be considered in its entirety: not only the instruments, but also the logistics necessary for their preparation and deployment, field operations, the associated data streams and data centres.

IAGOS - In service Aircraft for a Global Observing System

IAGOS will be established and operated as a distributed infrastructure for long term observations of atmospheric composition, aerosol and cloud particles on a global scale from a fleet of initially 10-20 long range in-service aircraft of internationally operating airlines. It will likely become a key component of a GMES service on air quality.

ICOS - Integrated carbon observation system

ICOS will provide across Europe and adjacent regions a distributed infrastructure for standardised long-term high precision monitoring of atmospheric and oceanic greenhouse gas concentrations, ecosystemfluxes and essential carbon cycling variables. These measurements will allow daily determination of sources and sinks at scales down to about 100 km2, and will be a basis for understanding the carbon exchange processes between the atmosphere, the terrestrial surface and the ocean.

LIFEWATCH - Infrastructure for Research on Biodiversity and Ecosystems

LIFEWATCH is an e-science and technology infrastructure for biodiversity and ecosystem research to support the scientific community and other users. It is putting in place the infrastructure and information systems necessary to provide an analytical platform for the modelling and simulation of both existing and new data on biodiversity to enhance the knowledge of biodiversity functioning and management.

Health & Food

EMBRC - European Marine Biological Resource Centre

The European Marine Biological Resource Centre (EMBRC) will comprise a consortium of key European marine biological and molecular biology laboratories, together providing:

  • access to a wide range of European coastal marine biota and their ecosystems;
  • an integrated supply of marine organisms for interdisciplinary research, including existing and new models;
  • coordinated services including state-of-the-art bio-banks and dedicated platforms for genomics, structural and functional biology, microscopy and bioinformatics;
  • interdisciplinary training in marine biological sciences and genomics; and
  • outreach to stakeholders, users and the public at large.

Access to resources will be provided both on site (to resident and non-resident users) and remotely (e.g. sending samples, e-resources). End users are expected to comprise not only marine biologists and in-house staff, but also researchers from other scientific institutes, universities, governmental and NGO agencies, SMEs and industry.

ERINHA - European Research Infrastructure on Highly Pathogenic Agents

ERINHA will be a pan-European distributed Research Infrastructure aiming to reinforce the European coordination and capacities for the study and the surveillance of highly pathogenic micro-organisms. It will provide open access to state-of-the-art BSL4 facilities for the European scientific community to enhance basic and targeted research activities and diagnostic activities. The infrastructure aims to promote the harmonization of bio-safety and bio-security procedures, to develop standards for the management of biological resources, diagnosis of group 4 pathogens, and to develop training of BSL4 labs users.

EU-OPENSCREEN - European Infrastructure of Open Screening Platforms for Chemical Biology

EU-OPENSCREEN will be an open-access infrastructure for the development of bioactive small molecules. It will include a large collection of diverse compounds (at least 0.5 million), high throughput screening (HTS) centres, hit optimisation facilities, and a publicly accessible database combining screening results, assay protocols, and chemical information. This integrated infrastructure will meet the needs for new bioactive compounds in all fields of life sciences (human and veterinary medicine, systems biology, biotechnology, agriculture, nutrition, etc.).

EURO-BIOIMAGING - European Research Infrastructure for biomedical imaging

Euro-Bioimaging will be a European Research Infrastructure for biomedical imaging stretching from basic biological imaging up to medical imaging of humans and populations. It will consist of a number of distributed and strongly coordinated biomedical imaging infrastructures (“nodes”), which will serve European scientists by providing access to, and training in, advanced imaging technologies across the full scale of biological and medical applications. At the same time, the infrastructure will provide the possibility for many existing imaging research institutions or laboratories to contribute to technology development and training. Euro-BioImaging will also serve as a platform delivering knowledge and expertise, allowing exchange of methodologies and the joint use of acquired data.

ANAEE - Infrastructure for Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems

ANAEE aims at developing a coordinated set of experimental platforms across Europe to analyse, detect, and forecast the responses of ecosystems to environmental and land use changes. An additional aim is to engineer management techniques that will allow buffering of and/or adaptation to these changes. The distributed and coordinated network of in-situ and invitro experimental platforms of ANAEE will be associated with analytical and modelling platforms. Links with networks of instrumented observation sites will be established. The ANAEE data will be freely and openly available.

ISBE - Infrastructure for Systems Biology-Europe

ISBE will (I) interconnect hubs of technological excellence in Systems Biology, offering the best European research expertise, and experimental and modelling facilities, necessary for systems biology, (II) establish and make available repositories of data and models, and (III) enable real-time connections within and between components of (I) and (II) and with external ‘user’ laboratories, through the provision of high performance connections to existing high capacity electronic network infrastructures. Hubs will contribute specific skills and expertise to functional clusters focused on a variety of topics in an operational matrix, and some hubs may have groups that participate in different and/or multiple clusters. This structure will also facilitate efficient interaction with the substantial technology development efforts relevant to Systems Biology already funded by national and EU programmes. ISBE will enable all European laboratories to model, conduct experiments and undertake other essential activities remotely, where they cannot be done locally.

MIRRI - Microbial Resource Research Infrastructure

MIRRI is a pan-European distributed Research Infrastructure that will provide microbiological services facilitating access to high quality microorganisms, their derivatives and associated data for research, development and application. It will connect resource holders with researchers and policy makers to deliver the resources and services more effectively and efficiently to meet the needs of innovation in biotechnology. The infrastructure project includes over 70 microbial domain resource centres in 26 European countries; collectively they provide access to more than 350,000 strains of microorganisms.

EMPHASIS - European Infrastructure for multi-scale Plant Phenomics and Simulation

EMPHASIS is a distributed research Infrastructure to develop and provide access to facilities and services addressing multi-scale phenotyping in different agro-climatic scenarios. EMPHASIS will establish an integrated European phenotyping infrastructure to analyse genotype performance under diverse environmental conditions and quantify the diversity of traits contributing to performance in diverse environmental scenario − plant architecture, major physiological functions and output, yield components and quality. EMPHASIS aims to address the technological and organizational limits of European Phenotyping, for a full exploitation of genetic and genomic resources available for crop improvement in changing climate.

BBMRI - Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure

BBMRI will be a pan-European distributed infrastructure of existing and new bio-banks and bio-molecular resource centres. It will provide access to human biological samples that are considered as essential raw material for the advancement of biotechnology, human health and research and development in Life Sciences (e. g. blood, tissues, cells or DNA that are associated with clinical and research data). It will also comprise bio-molecular research tools and bio-computational tools to optimally exploit this resource for global biomedical research.

EATRIS - European Advanced Translational Research Infrastructure in Medicine

The European Advanced Translational Research Infrastructure in Medicine (EATRIS) will provide infrastructure allowing a faster and more efficient translation of research discoveries into new products to prevent, diagnose or treat diseases. EATRIS will operate through a pan-European consortium of leading biological and medical sciences research centres providing the necessary infrastructure facilities and expertise. They will form strong new innovation clusters, the EATRIS Translation Centres. These centres will provide cutting edge infrastructure and knowledge for the entire development from basic research to the clinic. According to their core expertise the EATRIS Centres will focus on certain disease(s) and product(s). The EATRIS consortium is open to all countries which want to contribute to new European translational Research Infrastructure.

ECRIN - European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network

ECRIN is designed to bridge the fragmentation of clinical research in Europe through integration of national networks of clinical Research Infrastructures. It will provide ‘one-stop shop’ services to investigators and sponsors in multinational clinical research studies. Users will be investigators and sponsors in the academic and SME sector.

ELIXIR - European Life-Science Infrastructure for Biological Information

ELIXIR will be a secure, rapidly evolving platform for collection, storage, annotation, validation, dissemination and utilization of biological data. It will comprise a distributed, and interlinked collection of core and specialized biological data resources. The core resources will include a substantial upgrade to the existing molecular data resources at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI), as well as new resources as appropriate. The specialized resources will be distributed across Europe. ELIXIR will also include the necessary major upgrade to the computer infrastructure to store and organize this data in a way suitable for rapid search and access, and will provide a sophisticated but user friendly portal for users. Additionally, it will provide the infrastructure necessary to utilise data in a manner that is most appropriate for users of other Research Infrastructures in biological and medical sciences and environmental sciences.

INFRAFRONTIER - European Research Infrastructure for the generation, phenotyping, archiving and distribution of mouse disease models

Infrafrontier will be a distributed Research Infrastructure offering access to systemic phenotyping, archiving and distribution of mouse models for human diseases to the biomedical research community. The Infrafrontier Research Infrastructure will be composed of mouse clinics and mouse repository facilities. Mouse clinics are high-throughput phenotyping centres that carry out a comprehensive clinical characterisation of mouse mutants in order to reveal the molecular and functional basis of human diseases and to identify mouse models for biomedical research. Scientifically valuable mouse models are archived and distributed by EMMA (the European Mouse Mutant Archive), which is an intrinsic part of the Infrafrontier Research Infrastructure.

INSTRUCT - Integrated Structural Biology Infrastructure

INSTRUCT is a European distributed infrastructure that will promote integrative science by providing open access to state-of-the-art structural biology technologies to researchers in member countries. INSTRUCT will facilitate research that brings together biological structure with cellular function by not only providing infrastructure but also engaging in development of instrumentation, technologies and methodologies. INSTRUCT will enable its members to access instrumentation and expertise through a dynamic, sustainable infrastructure which will stimulate innovation at the boundary between technologies, and foster a valuable relationship with industry.

Physical Sciences & Engineering

CTA - Cherenkov Telescope Array

The Cherenkov Telescope Array will be an advanced facility for ground-based high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. With two sites, in both the southern and northern hemispheres, it will extend the study of astrophysical origin of gamma-rays at energies of a few tens of GeV and above. It will provide the first complete and detailed view of the universe in this part of the radiation spectrumand will contribute towards a better understanding of astrophysical and cosmological processes.

EST - European Solar Telescope

The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a 4-metre class telescope dedicated to study the fundamental processes in the Sun that control the solar atmosphere and its activity and the physical conditions in the heliosphere. EST will be optimized for high-resolution multi-wavelength simultaneous multi-instrument observations of the photosphere and chromosphere, as well as magnetic structures therein. One aim is to address the still unresolved and difficult question concerning the emergence of magnetic fields at the solar surface and transfer of magnetic and kinetic energy from subsurface layers to the solar atmosphere. This is the key question for understanding how the magnetic field is controlling the solar atmosphere and its activity. As the Sun is the only star at which photospheric and chromospheric features can be resolved, these observations will be of astrophysical wide relevance. Understanding the interaction of plasmas with magnetic fields has many technological application, e.g. in fusion nuclear reactors. Space missions are also tributary of data from ground solar telescopes.

KM3NeT - KM3 Neutrino Telescope 2.0: Astroparticle & Oscillations Research with Cosmics in the Abyss

KM3NeT will be a deep-sea Research Infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea hosting a cubic-kilometre sized deep-sea neutrino telescope for astronomy based on the detection of high-energy cosmic neutrinos and giving access to long term deep-sea measurements. The goal of KM3Net is to investigate neutrino “point sources” (gamma ray bursts, supernovae or colliding stars) in the energy regime of 1-100 TeV. The telescope will also be a powerful tool for the indirect detection of dark matter. It will have improved sensitivity (> factor 50) compared with the current Northern hemisphere telescopes (ANTARES) and will also exceed the sensitivity of the US-led IceCube experiment. The observatory would also provide a facility for Earth and marine sciences.

E-ELT - European Extremely Large Telescope

ELTs are seen world-wide as one of the highest priorities in ground-based astronomy. They will vastly advance astrophysical knowledge allowing detailed studies of inter alia planets around other stars, the first objects in the Universe, super-massive Black Holes, and the nature and distribution of the Dark Matter and Dark Energy which dominate the Universe. The 42m European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) project will maintain and reinforce Europe’s position at the forefront of astrophysical research.

ELI - Extreme Light Infrastructure

ELI will be an international Research Infrastructure for the investigation and applications of laser matter interaction at more than 6 orders of magnitude higher than today’s state of the art. ELI will explore laser matter interaction up to the nonlinear quantum electrodynamics (QED) limit along with atto-second laser science designed to conduct temporal investigation at the atto-second scale of electron dynamics in atoms, molecules, plasmas and solids and development of dedicated beam lines of ultra short pulses of high energy radiation and particles up to 100GeV for users. ELI will be a pan-European multi-sited infrastructure with three pillars: Atto-second Pillar (Szeged, Hungary), Beamlines Pillar (Dolni Brezany near Prague), and Photonuclear Pillar (Magurele, Romania). ELI will become the first genuinely international large-scale laser facility.

EMFL - European Magnetic Field Laboratory

EMFL will be a dedicated magnet field laboratory providing the highest possible fields (both continuous and pulsed) to European researchers. It will be operated as a single distributed Research Infrastructure which integrates and upgrades the four already existing major European high magnetic field laboratories: the Grenoble High Magnetic Field Laboratory (GHMFL), the Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Pulsés (LNCMP) in Toulouse, the Hochfeld-Magnetlabor Dresden (HLD), and the High Field Magnet Laboratory (HFML) in Nijmegen. EMFL will allow Europe to take the lead in the production and use of very high magnetic fields for scientific goals.

ESRF Upgrades - Upgrade of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Phase II: Extremely Brilliant Source)

The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), located in Grenoble, France, is a joint facility supported and shared by 17 European countries and Israel. It operates the most powerful high energy synchrotron light source in Europe and brings together a wide range of disciplines including physics, chemistry and materials science as well as biology, medicine, geophysics and archaeology. There are many industrial applications, including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, petrochemicals and microelectronics.

ESS - European Spallation Source

The European Spallation Source will be the world’s most powerful long-pulse source of neutrons at 5MW. Its built-in upgradeability will make it the most costeffective top tier source for the next 40 years. A genuine pan-European facility, it will serve a community of 5,000 researchers across many areas of science and technology. The ESS will be co-hosted by Sweden and Denmark and built in Lund with a Data Management Centre located in Copenhagen. Additionally, an important infrastructure site, an ESS Laboratory Test Facility and Accelerator Components Factory, will be located in Bilbao (Spain).

European XFEL - European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Facility

The European X-ray Free Electron Laser, under construction in Hamburg, Germany, will be a world leading facility for the production of intense, short pulses of X-rays for scientific research in a wide range of disciplines.

FAIR - Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research

FAIR will provide high energy primary and secondary beams of ions of highest intensity and quality, including an "antimatter beam" of antiprotons allowing forefront research in five different disciplines of physics. The accelerator facility foresees the broad implementation of ion storage/ cooler rings and of in-ring experimentation with internal targets. High intensity ion beams up to 35 GeV /nucleon will be delivered.

HL-LHC - High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is the highest-energy particle collider in the world. The ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC have provided the breakthrough discovery of the so-called Higgs boson. This discovery is the start of a major programme to measure this particle’s properties with the highest possible precision for testing the validity of the Standard Model and to search for further new physics at the energy frontier. To extend its discovery potential, the LHC will be upgraded to High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC).

ILL20/20 - Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin

The reactor-based laboratory at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL) is recognised as the world’s most productive and reliable source of slow neutrons for the study of condensed matter. ILL 20/20 upgrade plans to optimise its potential to deliver to users’ needs in the future.

SKA - Square Kilometre Array

The Square Kilometre Array will be the next generation radio telescope. With an operating frequency range of 70 MHz - 25 GHz and a collecting area of about 1.000.000 m2, it will be 50 times more sensitive than current facilities. With its huge field-of-view it will be able to survey the sky more than 10,000 times faster than any existing radio telescope. The SKA will be a machine that transforms our view of the universe.

SPIRAL2 - Facility for the production and study of rare isotope radioactive beams

SPIRAL2 is a new European facility to be built at GANIL laboratory in Caen, France. The project aims at delivering stable and rare isotope beams with intensities not yet available with present machines. SPIRAL2 will reinforce the European leadership in the field of nuclear physics based on exotic nuclei.

Social & Cultural Innovation

E-RIHS - European Research Infrastructure for Heritage Science

The European Research Infrastructure for Heritage Science (E-RIHS) will support research on heritage interpretation, preservation, documentation and management. It will comprise: E-RIHS Headquarters and National Hubs, fixed and mobile national infrastructures of recognized excellence, physically accessible collections/archives and virtually accessible heritage data. Both cultural and natural heritage are addressed: collections, buildings, archaeological sites, digital and intangible heritage. E-RIHS will provide state-of-the-art tools and services to cross-disciplinary research communities advancing understanding and preservation of global heritage. It will provide access to a wide range of cutting-edge scientific infrastructures, methodologies, data and tools, training in the use of these tools, public engagement, access to repositories for standardized data storage, analysis and interpretation. E-RIHS will enable the community to advance heritage science and global access to the distributed infrastructures in a coordinated and streamlined way.

CESSDA - Facility to provide and facilitate access of researchers to high quality data for social sciences

CESSDA is a distributed Research Infrastructure that provides and facilitates access for researchers to high quality data and supports their use. It promotes the acquisition, archiving and distribution of electronic data, and encourages the exchange of data. The infrastructure includes 20 social science data archives in 20 European countries. Collectively they serve over 30,000 researchers, providing access to more than 50,000 data collections per annum.

CLARIN - The Common Language Resources and Technology Infrastructure

CLARIN is a large-scale pan-European coordinated infrastructure effort to make language resources and technology available and useful to scholars of all disciplines, in particular the humanities and social sciences. It will overcome the present fragmented situation by harmonising structural and terminological differences, based on a Grid-type infrastructure and by using Semantic Web technology.

DARIAH - The Digital Research Infrastructure for the Arts and Humanities

DARIAH aims to conceptualise and build an infrastructure in support of ICT-based research practices in the arts and humanities and to support researchers in the creation and use of research data and tools. DARIAH connects information users (researchers), information managers and information providers, providing a technical framework that enables enhanced data sharing among research communities.

ESS - European Social Survey

The European Social Survey is an academically driven long term pan-European distributed instrument designed to chart and explain the interaction between Europe's changing institutions and the attitudes, beliefs and behaviour patterns of its diverse populations. The original infrastructure was set up in 2001 as a time series survey for monitoring change in social values throughout Europe and to produce data relevant to academic debate, policy analysis, better governance, and as an important resource for the training of new researchers in comparative methods.

SHARE - Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe

SHARE is a pan-European social science project which was during the preparatory phase centrally coordinated at the MEA Institute in Germany. SHARE ERIC is the upgrade into a long term research infrastructure of a multidisciplinary and cross-national panel database of micro data on health, socio-economic status and social and family networks of about 45,000 Europeans aged 50 or over. The data are harmonised with the U.S. Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and accessible free of charge to the scientific community.

e-Infrastructures

PRACE - Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe

The Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe is a European strategic approach to highperformance computing. It concentrates the resources distributed in a limited number of world-class top-tier centres in a single infrastructure connected to national, regional and local centres, forming a scientific computing network. Different machine architectures will fulfil the requirements of different scientific domains and applications. This can be represented as a pyramid, where local centres would constitute the base of the pyramid, national and regional centres would constitute the middle layer and the high-end HPC centres would constitute the top.