Van den Putte (2017) Chapter on 'involving stakeholder in trade agreements' in ILO Handbook on assessment of labour provisions in trade and investment arrangements

A number of countries have set up advisory mechanisms to involve stakeholders, including social partners, in the implementation of labour provisions in trade agreements. These mechanisms include permanent consultative structures, agreement-specific mechanisms, and mechanisms involving broader segments of civil society and the general public. Evidence shows that social partners’ involvement can contribute to an environment that is more favourable for improving labour standards in the long run, including by increasing public awareness on labour issues, enhancing dialogue between governments and civil society, and putting labour issues on the political agenda. 

This chapter written by Lore Van den Putte is part of the Handbook on assessment of labour provisions in trade and investment arrangements, published by the ILO.

Orbie, Martens, Oehri & Van den Putte (2017) Promoting sustainable development or legitimising free trade? Civil society mechanisms in EU trade agreements.

This study critically reflects on the involvement of civil society actors in the sustainable development chapters of recent EU trade agreements. It discusses how civil society mechanisms may legitimise the underlying neoliberal orientation of the agreements through co-optation of critical actors. Starting from a critical perspective and drawing on evidence from innovative survey data, qualitative interviews and participatory observations, it concludes that, despite overall criticism, there is no clear evidence of co-optation. While being aware of the risks their participation entail, EU participants take a constructive position. Nevertheless, diverging perspectives between non-profit and business actors risk reinforcing existing power asymmetries.

Orbie, J. et al. (2017). Promoting sustainable development or legitimising free trade? Civil society mechanisms in EU trade agreements, Third World Thematics: A TWQ Journal.

Orbie & Martens (2016) EU Trade policy and developing countries: towards a more ethical agenda?

This chapter aims to provide a concise overview of evolutions in European Union (EU) trade policy towards developing countries. Ever since the early years of European integration, an ethical agenda towards the Global South has been proclaimed. Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, the EU’s growing market size and political profile further substantiated the conception of its role as a leading and “normative” power. This resulted in a number of highly symbolic trade-related initiatives towards the developing world: the “Everything but Arms” (EBA) initiatives providing duty-free and quota-free access for the least-developed countries (LDCs) (2001), the calls led by the EU for a Development Round of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in the lead-up to Doha Conference (2001), the elaboration of the GSP+ system with sustainable development and governance trade conditionality (2005), and the EU Aid for Trade Strategy (2007) all seemed to underpin this image of an ethical actor towards the Global South. One decade later, however, it remains unclear how successful the EU has been. A number of internal and international evolutions have challenged both the EU’s “normative” and “power” profiles.

Orbie, J. & Martens, D. (2016). EU Trade policy and developing countries: towards a more ethical agenda? In P. Garcia-Duran & M. Millet (Eds.) Different Glances at EU Trade Policy. CIDOB

Martens, Orbie, Van den Putte & Williams (2016) Civil society meetings in EU trade agreements: recommendations and lessons for EPAs

EU trade agreements increasingly involve civil society to discuss and monitor sustainable development. Evaluations of these civil society meetings vary widely from being mere talking shops to empowering platforms. The new EPAs have weak or no provisions on civil society involvement and should be strengthened in this regard. In order to maximise the full potential of these meetings, lessons can be drawn from the existing mechanisms.

Read the ECDPM Policy Brief, including 10 recommendations here.

Van den Putte (2016) PhD thesis: the EU's trade-labour linkage: beyond the 'soft' approach?

This dissertation addresses the inclusion of labour norms in EU (and US) bilateral trade agreements, mostly with Peru, Colombia and South Korea. In doing so it answers three main research questions: (1) what are the defining features of the EU’s trade-labour linkage; (2) what is the impact of the EU’s trade-labour linkage and (3) how can the findings concerning the design and the impact of the EU’s trade-labour linkage be explained?

Read the executive summary in English or Spanish.

Martens, Van den Putte, Williams & Orbie (2016) Contribution to Consultation Revision EU Consensus on Development

This contribution is written on behalf of the Centre for EU Studies. Our input is related to our research on the EU’s trade-labour linkage (both in bilateral agreements as well as in in its General System of Preferences (GSP) scheme) and the civil society mechanisms established under the new generation of EU trade agreements.

Orbie & Van den Putte (2016) Labour rights in Peru and the EU trade agreement: Compliance with the commitments under the sustainable development chapter

In this study commissioned by 11.11.11 Jan Orbie and Lore Van den Putte investigate Peru’s compliance with the labour commitments under the EU-Peru-Colombia trade agreement. Based on an analytical framework that summarises the labour-related commitments of the sustainable development chapter into three categories – upholding ILO Core Labour Standards, non-lowering domestic labour law, and promoting civil society dialogue – they conclude that Peru has failed to comply in a number of areas. They also make recommendations for the EU and civil society and suggestions for more profound and systematic research.

The study includes executive summaries in English, Spanish and German.

Orbie, J. & Van den Putte, L. (2016). Labour rights in Peru and the EU trade agreement Compliance with the commitments under the sustainable development chapter. Öfse Working Paper 58. Vienna: Öfse

Orbie, Martens & Van den Putte (2016) Civil Society Meetings in European Union Trade Agreements: Features, Purposes, and Evaluation

A novelty in the new generation of European Union free trade agreements is the chapter on trade and sustainable development. This includes references to labour and environmental provisions that should be respected in the framework of the agreement as a whole. Civil society organisations have, apparently, been granted an important role in the follow-up and monitoring of these chapters. Civil society meetings have become a standard and quite prominent feature of EU free trade agreements, specifically with a view to promoting labour and environmental principles. In this CLEER Paper, we address three basic questions about these meetings: (1) how do they look like (features), (2) what are they for (purposes), and (3) how can we evaluate them (assessment)? In doing so, we take stock of current developments (empirical contribution) and propose frameworks for further examination (analytical contribution). Our empirical data are mainly based on interviews and participant observation in relation to the EU-Peru-Colombia, EU-Central America and EU-Korea agreements. Our analytical frameworks are developed in order to study the features of the civil society meetings on the one hand, and in order to make normative evaluations on the other hand. When it comes to evaluating the success of the civil society meetings, we argue that this ultimately hinges on one’s perspective on civil society, democracy and development in the context of international trade. In conclusion, we express some critical concerns on the (so far) limited role of the civil society meetings, while also indicating that it would be too early to dismiss their potential relevance in the future.

Orbie, J., Martens, D. & Van den Putte, L. (2016). Civil Society Meetings in European Union Trade Agreements: Features, Purposes, and Evaluation. CLEER PAPERS 2016/3. The Hague: TMC Asser Institute.

Read the executive summary in English or Spanish

De Ville, Orbie & Van den Putte (2016) Sustainable Development in TTIP: A Highest Common Denominator Compromise?

In this short piece, we speculate about the possible outcomes of the negotiations on 'Trade and Sustainable Development' in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) between the European Union and the United States. We focus primarily on labour provisions. However, our conclusions to large extent also apply to environmental provisions in TTIP. We first explain that the EU and the US have different approaches to the inclusion of labour provisions in free trade agreements. We then argue that these two approaches can be integrated in a lowest common denominator or a highest common denominator way (this should rather be seen as a continuum of potential outcomes), and we outline what we already know about TTIP in this area. We conclude that if the negotiators want to live up to their promise that TTIP will have beneficial social and environmental effects they should integrate the EU and US approaches at the highest level.

De Ville, F., Orbie, J. & Van Den Putte, L. (2016). Sustainable development in TTIP: a highest common denominator compromise? European Journal of Risk Regulation (2), 290–294.

The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership will follow EU and US recent trade policy practice to include labour provisions. These could limit the risk that liberalisation results in social dumping and promote upward change. This study concludes that the EU could take a precautionary stance and employ various instruments that increase the chances that TTIP will have positive social consequences. TTIP may combine the strengths of the EU and US approaches to labour provisions, while improving their weaknesses. More analysis of the social consequences of liberalisation and labour provisions might be stimulated and strong flanking measures at the EU and national level be foreseen.

De Ville, F., Orbie, J. & Van Den Putte, L. (2016). TTIP and Labour Standards. Brussels: European Parliament.

Van den Putte et al. (2015) What social face of the new EU trade agreements?

This ETUI Policy brief recommends that, if the EU is genuinely committed to promoting labour rights through trade agreements, it should invest more people and resources in this goal and enhance its approach to the trade-labour linkage on three counts: (i) involvement of civil society in the monitoring should be more substantial; (ii) monitoring of the implementation and its follow-up should be more thorough, systematic and inclusive; (iii) the dialogue-based approach should be more holistic in terms of both policies and involvement of actors. These issues are more important than the debate on whether or not it is appropriate for the EU to adopt a more sanctions-based approach.

Van den Putte et al. (2015) What social face of the new EU trade agreements? Beyond the ‘soft’ approach. ETUI Policy Brief n° 13/2015.

The policy brief was translated into Spanish and published in Mundos Plurales (2016, (3)1, 101-111): ¿Cuál es el rostro social de los nuevos acuerdos comerciales de la UE? Más allá del enfoque “suave”

Yuan & Orbie (2015) The Social Dimension of the EU-China Relationship: A Normative and Pragmatic European Approach?

Recent decades have seen an expansion in EU-China relations. While this phenomenon has been examined extensively in the existing literature, bilateral interactions in the social field remain largely unexplained. This article investigates the evolution of the social dimension in EU-China relations and finds that social issues receive little attention until the mid-1990s, but increase in importance thereafter. To explore this phenomenon, we found both explanatory power and limits in the ‘normative power Europe’ versus the ‘pragmatic power Europe’ perspectives.
Pragmatic concerns help to explain why social issues have become more closely linked to economic than to political ties. Yet they fail to account for the EU’s relatively successful export of social security norms to China. The European Union’s normative power could be enhanced rather than inevitably threatened by China’s rapid development. Analysing the social dimension also throws light on the complexity of the EU-China relationship; a complexity that is largely ignored by existing observations.

Yuan, H. & Orbie, J. (2015). The Social Dimension of the EU-China Relationship: A Normative and Pragmatic European Approach?. European Foreign Affairs Review, 20(3), 337–356.

Van den Putte & Orbie (2015): EU bilateral trade agreements and the surprising rise of labour provisions

Surprisingly labour provisions in EU bilateral trade agreements have widened and deepened over the past decade. One would have expected the opposite given the coming into power of centre- right governments in the early 2000s and a stronger liberalization agenda since 2006. This article aims to explain this rather remarkable evolution. It firstly dismisses the argument that protectionist motives lie behind the stronger social clauses in EU trade agreements. Instead, drawing on the theory of the life cycle of norms, it suggests that social trade has become an unobjectionable norm within the EU. The article provides several explanations for why the social-trade nexus has become barely disputed, and indeed has even further expanded through subsequent trade arrangements, such as the bigger influence of the European Parliament, path-dependencies stemming from the EU’s previous template, and the need to find public support in the face of criticism against free trade agreements. Most importantly, it stresses that the framing of core labour rights as part of a broader ‘sustainable development’ agenda has contributed to their unobjectionable status. While this framing has helped to forge a consensus with regard to the social trade agenda, equating labour and environmental provisions under the sustainable development umbrella might also have adverse consequences for the concept of labour provisions.

Van den Putte, L. & Orbie, J. (2015). EU bilateral trade agreements and the surprising rise of labour provisions, International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, 31 (3), 263-284.

Orbie & Khorana (2015) Normative versus market power Europe? The EU-India trade agreement

This article focuses on the controversial EU trade negotiations and investigates how market liberal norms (government procurement) and cosmopolitan norms (human rights) are being promoted and received. We conclude that in the eyes of the EU, trade agreements could be a means to mitigate partners’ opposition and an eventual stepping stone for successful off-take of international social standards and multilateral procurement liberalization regulations by its partner countries. But, partner countries might not necessarily espouse the EU’s interest-led motivation and lend support to the EU’s desire to effuse multilateral norms through trading agreements. The case study on EU-India trade talks illustrates this, highlighting the divergence between the EU and Indian perspectives and demonstrates India’s lack of enthusiasm to adopt the EU’s preferred model for liberalization.

Orbie, J. & Khorana, S. (2015). Normative versus market power Europe? The EU-India trade agreement, Asia Europe Journal.

Van den Putte (2015): Involving Civil Society in Social Clauses and the Decent Work Agenda

This article focuses on the trade agreements of the US and the EU with South Korea there is the possibility for civil society organisations such as unions, business organisations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and academics to participate in the monitoring of the implementation of labour provisions. This article assesses to what extent these civil society monitoring mechanisms differ and thereby shows that while such mechanisms are intended to be promotional, they do have the potential to contribute to respect for labour standards. However, in order to concretise this potential, the institutionalisation and accountability of the mechanisms should be strengthened.

Van den Putte, L. (2015). Involving Civil Society in Social Clauses and the Decent Work Agenda, Global Labour Journal, 6(2).

Oehri (2014): Comparing US and EU labor governance ‘near and far’ – hierarchy vs network?

This article investigates how the European Union (EU) and the United States of America (US) govern labour provisions in Mexico and Morocco. Drawing on the external governance approach and distinguishing between governance through hierarchy and governance through network, it aims to assess the extent to which the EU and US enforce labour provisions by hierarchical means and promote them through horizontal, network-based interaction. The article reveals that the EU and US de jure rely on hierarchical and networked means while de facto they generally emphasize the latter. Hence, contrary to what a power-based hypothesis would suggest, structures of power do not determine EU and US external governance of labour provisions.

Oehri, M. (2014). Comparing US and EU labor governance ‘near and far’ – hierarchy vs network?, Journal of European Public Policy, 22 (5).

Van den Putte, Bossuyt, Orbie & De Ville (2013): Social norms in EU bilateral trade agreements: a comparative overview

This paper provides a systematic analysis of the incorporation of social norms in EU trade agreements It is concluded that the scope of social norms has broadened from general references on social cooperation, to social dialogue and social protection to ILO standards (as human rights); that the enforceability remains weak but there is a tendency to delegate disputes to more neutral experts; and that corporate social responsibility and civil society dialogue seem to have become an integral part of any trade agreement.

Van den Putte, L., Bossuyt, F., Orbie, J., & De Ville, F. (2013). Social norms in EU bilateral trade agreements: a comparative overview. In T. Takacs, A. Ott & A. Dimopoulos (Eds.), Linking trade and non-commercial interests: the EU as a global role model. TMC Asser Institute.

Orbie (2013): Work in progress: the social dimension of EU-Africa relations.

This chapter analyzes the social dimension of EU- Africa relations from a historical institutionalist perspective. Since the early 2000s the European Union has explicitly committed itself to promoting the social dimension of globalization, also in development cooperation. We examine the role of decent work and labour standards in the EU’s policies towards Sub-Saharan Africa, looking at political agreements, budgetary commitments and trade arrangements between both regions. We come to the conclusion that decent work and labour standard objectives have been virtually non-existent and largely overshadowed by other consideration – also from the African side of the relationship.

Orbie, J. (2013). Work in progress: the social dimension of EU-Africa relations. In M. Carbone (Ed.), The European Union in Africa : incoherent policies, asymmetrical partnership, declining relevance?. Manchester University Press.

Bailey & Bossuyt (2013): The European Union as a Conveniently-conflicted Counter-hegemon through Trade

    This article addresses the failure by scholars of EU trade policy to fully explain the difficulties faced in realising the ‘normative’ goals contained within the European Union’s external trade policy and the conviction that it might be a ‘force for good’ through trade. In seeking to account for and, in particular, move beyond the failure to fully explain these difficulties, the article adopts a critical social science approach that focuses on relations of domination and the (potentially misleading) appearances that such relations tend to uphold. In contrast to the traditional view of the EU as a potential ‘force for good’, we conceptualise it as a site of domination, focusing in particular on three mechanisms through which this domination is achieved – expansive market (capitalist) exchange, the ‘Othering’ that tends to accompany such processes of expansion, and the de-politicisation necessary to achieve and/or legitimate these processes. The article proceeds to explore recent developments in EU trade policy, and in particular the Global Europe agenda and associated new generation of free trade agreements with trade partners in Asia and Latin America. In doing so, the article examines the extent to which processes of market expansion, Othering and de-politicisation have been realised in recent EU trade policy. It argues for a conceptualisation of the European Union as a conveniently-conflicted counter- hegemon through trade, whereby the EU presents itself as a potential “force for good” through trade, but simultaneously avoids the realisation of that potential (and justifies its non-realisation) by evoking the conveniently-conflicted status that arises from institutional constraints and both internal disagreements and external differences. This account, we claim, is both more plausible than the existing empirical accounts in that it is able to explain the consistent promotion of an apparently unrealisable ‘progressive’ agenda by the European Union, and an improvement upon those accounts in that it illuminates and demystifies relations of domination and certain ideas that act to uphold them.

    Bailey, D. & Bossuyt, F. (2013). ‘The European Union as a Conveniently-conflicted Counter-hegemon through Trade’, Journal of Contemporary European Research. 9 (4).

    Orbie (2011): Promoting Labour Standards Through Trade: Normative Power or Regulatory State Europe?

    This chapter addresses the EU’s contribution to a social globalization through trade relations from a normative power perspective. It is argued that the Union’s principles, and to some extent also its activities, do indeed increasingly correspond with what would be expected from a normative power. However, its normative impact remains unclear. the chapter problematizes the link between the EU’s institutional set-up as a ‘regulatory state’ and the normative content of its trade policies.

    Orbie, J. (2011). Promoting Labour Standards Through Trade: Normative Power or Regulatory State Europe? In R. Whitman (Ed.), Normative Power Europe: Empirical and theoretical perspectives. Palgrave

    Orbie & De Ville (2010): Core Labour Standards in the GSP Regime of the European Union: Overshadowed by other Considerations

      This chapter takes a particular angle to the topic of the labour-trade nexus, focussing on the integration of core labour standards in the Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) of the European Union. We attempt to answer the question whether Europe’s social GSP has been applied in a way that suspicions of hidden protectionism and the resulting impasse at the WTO level can be removed. The conclusion reads that the EU’s social GSP system has not served pro- tectionist goals, but neither has it substantially enhanced the legitimacy of a social clause.

      Orbie, J., & De Ville, F. (2010). Core Labour Standards in the GSP Regime of the European Union: Overshadowed by other Considerations. In C. Fenwick & T. Novitz (Eds.), Human Rights at Work: Perspectives on Law and Regulation. Hart.

      Bossuyt (2009): The Social Dimension of the New Generation of EU FTAs with Asia and Latin America: Ambitious Continuation for the Sake of Policy Coherence.

        This article examines the commitment of the European Union (EU) to advance social goals through the ‘new generation’ of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) with partner countries in Asia and Latin America. It does so by analysing the positions of the relevant policy actors on the inclusion of social issues in these prospective agreements. The study finds that the EU is pursuing an ambitious social agenda for the future bilateral trade arrangements while building on existing EU initiatives to strengthen the Social Dimension of Globalization (SDG). It will be argued that this high level of social commitment should be attributed to the Commission’s pro-activeness and entrepreneurial ability in rallying the Member States behind the incorporation of social issues in the negotiating mandates. In asking why the Commission is so committed to promoting social justice through the new trade agreements, the article offers three explanations, one referring to the goal of increasing policy coherence in the social-trade nexus, one drawing on the issue of legitimacy and one relating to the pursuit of bureaucratic interests. The article concludes that the EU’s ambitious agenda nevertheless needs to be qualified. The Commission’s attempts to face policy incoherence between the trade and social spheres risk being hampered by a number of internal and external factors, including weak bureaucratic coordination, contradictory policy goals and opposition by the negotiating partners.

        Bossuyt, F. (2009). The Social Dimension of the New Generation of EU FTAs with Asia and Latin America: Ambitious Continuation for the Sake of Policy Coherence. European Foreign Affairs Review, 14(5).

        Orbie & Tortell (2009): The New GSP+ Beneficiaries: Ticking the Box or Truly Consistent with ILO Findings?

          In the past decade, the European Union (EU) has committed itself to promoting the social dimension of globalization, focusing mostly on the promotion of labour standards internationally through increased cooperation with the International Labour Organization (ILO) and by means of its external trade policies. This article addresses these two dimensions of the Union’s global social policies, by examining whether EU practise in Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) labour conditionality has been consistent with ILO assessments. In particular, we utilize a ‘hierarchy of condemnation’ to examine the implementation record of core labour standards (CLS), as evaluated by the ILO commit-tees entrusted with assessing countries’ observance of conventions. This analysis makes clear that, although EU decisions to sanction countries through its GSP scheme are trace-able to the level of condemnation by the ILO, consistency between the granting of GSP+ incentives and ILO assessments is less clear- cut and cannot entirely be explained by the EU’s attempts to use GSP+ to stimulate the implementation of CLS.

          Orbie, J., & Tortell, L. (2009). The New GSP+ Beneficiaries: Ticking the Box or Truly Consistent with ILO Findings?European Foreign Affairs Review, 14(5).

          Bossuyt, Gistelinck, Kerremans, Orbie & Tortell (Eds.) (2009): Special issue: The social dimension of European Union external trade relations

            The European Union (EU) is widely considered as a formidable trade power. It represents about one fourth of worldwide trade flows and generally speaks with one voice in its common commercial policies. In addition, policy-makers and scholars often regard the Union as a distinctive, ‘normative power’ in the world. From this perspective, Europe tries to be at the forefront of promoting values such as human rights, democracy, sustainable development, and social justice, this with a clear preference for supporting international dialogue and cooperation in these areas, rather than for using trade sanctions. This special issue combines both aspects of the EU’s international role. More specifically, it concerns the social dimension of the EU’s trade policies. It raises the questions of how, why, and with what impact the EU has promoted social objectives through its common commercial policies.

            Bossuyt, F., Martins Gistelinck, M., Kerremans, B., Orbie, J., & Tortell, L. (Eds.). (2009). The social dimension of European Union external trade relations. European Foreign Affairs Review. 14(5) (special issue). Kluwer International Law.

            Orbie et al. (2009) Lead article JESP Symposium: The European Union’s global social role

            This symposium considers Europe’s global social policy through an exchange of ideas between scholars with different areas of expertise. The lead article provides an overview of the EU’s objectives and instruments in promoting the social dimension of globalization, illustrating its focus on international labour standards and the International Labour Organization (ILO), and the shift from trade measures to a broader spectrum of soft external policy instruments.

            Orbie et al. (2009) JESP Symposium: The European Union’s global social role. Journal of European Social Policy; Vol 19(2): 99–116

            Orbie & Babarinde (2008): The social dimension of globalization and EU development policy: promoting core labour standards and corporate social responsibility

            This article describes and analyses the role of the European Union in promoting the social dimension of globalization (SDG). In the context of its policy coherence for development (PCD) commitments, the EU aims to promote decent work, including core labour standards (CLS) and employment objectives, in the Third World. Whereas the EU originally used a narrow approach centred on CLS in trade relations, it gradually developed a broader and development-orientated perspective, including the support of voluntary corporate social responsibility (CSR) schemes. The article concludes that although the EU has clearly increased the social face of its development policies, this softer approach is still in an embryonic phase.

            Orbie, J., & Babarinde, O. (2008). The social dimension of globalization and EU development policy: promoting core labour standards and corporate social responsibility. In Maurizio Carbone (Ed.), Policy coherence and EU development policy. Routledge.

            Orbie & Tortell (Eds.) (2008): The European Union and the Social Dimension of Globalization: How the EU influences the World.


            This edited volume provides a comprehensive account of the European Union’s social role in the world, assessing the EU’s ability to shape the social aspect of globalization from both law and political science perspectives. Focusing explicitly on the EU, the authors address the extent of coherence between the Union’s international social objectives compared with the activities of the International Labour Organization (ILO) and with other EU foreign policy goals. Various dimensions of Europe’s global social role are addressed, including the social dimension of EU trade relations, the involvement of civil society in EU development policies, the linkage between the EU’s internal and external ‘social model’, the export of Europe’s social acquis through enlargement and neighbourhood policies, the EU’s international position on health, gender equality, children’s rights, and corporate social responsibility and the role of the Union in the International Labour Organization. Apart from Jan Orbie and Lisa Tortell contributors to the book include Tonia Novitz, Maarten Keune, Sieglinde Gstöhl, Ailish Johnson, Robert Kissack, Rudi Delarue, Jeffrey Kenner, Sébastien Guigner, Myriam Gistelinck, Bart Kerremans, Olga Martin-Ortega, Muzaffer Eroglu, Petra Debusscher, Jacqui True, An Huybrechts, Rafael Peels and Ian Manners.


            Orbie, J. & Tortell, L. (Eds.) (2008). The European Union and the Social Dimension of Globalization: How the EU influences the World. Routledge GARNET series: Europe in the World.